A: Close the mouth, pinch the nose tight and blow out thereby increasing the pressure in the mouth and throat. At the same time try to swallow or move lower jaw
B: Increase rate of descent
C: Stop climbing, start descent
D: Pilots should apply anti-cold remedies prior every flight to prevent barotrauma in the middle ear
A: the semi circular canals
B: the cochlea
C: the otholiths
D: the receptors in the skin and the joints
B: altitude hypoxia
C: decompression sickness
Dalton’s law (also called Dalton’s law of partial pressures) states that the total pressure exerted by a gaseous mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of each individual component in a gas mixture.
A: Linear acceleration and angular acceleration
B: Gravity alone
C: Gravity and linear acceleration
D: Angular acceleration
The utricle is sensitive to a change in horizontal movement
The saccule gives information about linear acceleration (such as when in an elevator).
A: red vision, both during the day and at night
B: good, virtually instantaneous night-vision (scotopic vision)
C: precise vision of contours and colours
D: good night-vision after adaptation to darkness (30 min)
“Cone cells, or cones, are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that are responsible for color vision; they function best in relatively bright light, as opposed to rod cells that work better in dim light. Cone cells are densely packed in the fovea, but gradually become sparser towards the periphery of the retina. Rods are concentrated at the outer edges of the retina and are used in peripheral vision.”
This is why, in dark circumstances you can focus on something more easily by looking directly next to the object.
A: 45 seconds
B: 12 seconds
C: 5 minutes
D: 3 seconds
|Altitude in FL
||Time of Useful Consciousness
||30 min or more
||20 to 30 min
||3 to 6 min
||2.5 to 3 mins
||1 to 3 mins
||30 sec to 60 sec
||15 to 20 sec
||9 to 15 sec
|FL 500 and above
||6 to 9 sec
A: located in the outer ear.
B: located in the inner ear.
C: located in the middle ear.
D: are not located in the ear.
A: will always lead to hypoxia
B: prevents any dangers caused by DCS (decompression sickness) when climbing to altitudes not exceeding 30 000 FT
C: has no influence on altitude flights
D: can cause decompression sickness even when flying at pressure altitudes below 18 000 FT
A: when the runway is wider than he is used to
B: when the runway is unusually narrow
C: on night approaches only
D: depending on the approach speed of the aircraft
A: Galactic (Cosmic) and Nuclear radiation which are both caused by the earth’s natural radiation.
B: Ionisation of the layers in the atmosphere due to the bombardment of Galactic (Cosmic) radiation.
C: Solar radiation caused by solar flares and Nuclear radiation caused by the earth’s natural radiation.
D: Galactic (Cosmic) caused by galactic particles and Solar radiation caused by solar flares.